Gemstone Treatment Guide

 
Gemstone
Mohs Hardness Scale
 
Possible Enhancements
Purpose of Enhancement
Frequency
 
stability
care and handling
 
code
Gemstone A - B
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alexandrite 
8.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
 
 
Alexandrite - Narsipatnam  
8.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Alexite 
5.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
n/a
 
Amazonite - Russian  
6 - 6.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid heat, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners
 
n/a
 
Amber - Baltic 
2 - 2.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Amber is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid harsh chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners
 
n/a
 
Amber - Baltic 
2 - 2.5
 
heated
to improve appearance, deepen color, and add "sun spangles"
usually
 
good to very good
Amber is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid harsh chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners
 
H
 
Amber - Baltic 
2 - 2.5
 
heated with oils under pressure
to alter color
usually
 
good to very good
Amber is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid harsh chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners
 
HPHT, O
 
Amber - Baltic 
2 - 2.5
 
dyed/stained
to alter color
rarely
 
variable
Avoid repolishing. Amber is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid harsh chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners
 
D
 
Amber - Mayan Green  
2 - 2.5
 
heated
to alter color
commonly
 
 
Amber is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid harsh chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners
 
H
 
Amethyst - African
7
 
heated
to improve color
rarely
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Amethyst - Bahia
7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
Very Good
Amethyst may fade with long exposure to direct, bright sunlight.
 
n/a
 
Amethyst - Bolivian
7
 
heated
to improve color
rarely
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Amethyst - Green
7
 
heated
to improve color
rarely
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Amethyst - Lusaka  
7
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Amethyst - Moroccan 
7
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Amethyst - Pink
7
 
heated
to improve color
rarely
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Amethyst - Rose De France  
7
 
heated
to improve color
occasionally
 
excellent
Avoid heat. Certain stones may fade in daylight.
 
H
 
Amethyst - Rose du Maroc 
7
 
n/a
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Amethyst - Uruguayan  
7
 
heated
Improve Color
Commonly
 
Excellent
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
H
 
Amethyst - Zambian
7
 
heated
to improve color
rarely
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Ametrine - Anahi
7
 
heated
to improve color uniformity
always
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
H
 
Ammolite - Canadian
3.4- 4
 
Impregnated, Assembled
Improve Color and Stability
Commonly
 
fair - good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
I, ASBL
 
Andalusite - Jenipapo  
7 - 7.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Andesine - Red 
6 - 6.5
 
Diffused
To create color
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
DF
 
Angelite - Mexican
3 - 3.5
 
no treatment
n/a
n/a
 
fair
Avoid harsh usage
 
n/a
 
Apatite
5
 
Heated
To improve color
Always
 
Very Good
Apatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
H
 
Apatite - Blue
5
 
Heated
To improve color
Always
 
Very Good
Apatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
H
 
Apatite - Canary Yellow
5
 
Natural 
N/a
n/a
 
good
Apatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
 
 
Apatite - Cat's Eye
5
 
None 
N/a
Rarely
 
n/a
Apatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
 
 
Apatite - Forte Dauphine
5
 
Heated
to add color
always
 
very good  
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Apatite - Emerald Green
5
 
Heated
To improve color
Always
 
Very Good
Apatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
H
 
Apatite - Indian Ocean  
5
 
Heated
To improve color
Always
 
Very Good
Apatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
H
 
Apatite - Madagascar  
5
 
none
n/a
rarely
 
n/a
Apatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Apatite - Madagascar  
5
 
heated
to improve color
usually
 
good
Apatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
H
 
Apatite - Madagascar Olive
5
 
n/a
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Apatite - Malgache Neon
5
 
Heating
To create color
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
H
 
Apatite - Natural Green  
5
 
none
n/a
rarely
 
n/a
Apatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Apatite - Neon
5
 
none
n/a
rarely
 
n/a
Apatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
 
 
Apatite - Paraibe
5
 
Heated
To improve color
Always
 
Very Good
Apatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
H
 
Apatite - Yellow
5
 
Natural 
N/a
n/a
 
good
Apatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
 
 
Aquamarine - Espirito Santo  
7.5 - 8
 
heated
to improve color
usually
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Aqua Nueva Moss 
6.0 to 7.0
 
n/a
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Aragonite  - Cantonese Blue 
3.5 - 4
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Aragonite is soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. Aragonite is generally unsuitable for jewelry.
 
n/a
 
Aventurine  - Green
3.5 - 4
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Aragonite is soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. Aragonite is generally unsuitable for jewelry.
 
n/a
 
Azurite  - Aurora
6.5 - 7.0
 
Dyeing
To create color
Rarely
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
D
Gemstone C
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Calsilica - Rainbow  
3.0-4.0
 
Composite
to enhance the appearance
commonly
 
good
 
 
n/a
 
Carnelian 
6.0 - 7.0
 
Dyeing
To create color
Rarely
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
D
 
Carnelian 
6.0 - 7.0
 
Heating
To create color
Very Rarely
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
H
 
Ceruliete
5 – 6
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
 
 
Charoite - Siberian  
4.5-5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Charoite is somewhat sensitive to heat and pressure, so avoid the use of steam cleaners and ultrasonic cleaners, as well as any prolonged exposure to direct sun light.
 
n/a
 
Chrysocolla
2.0-4.0
 
Iimpregenation
to improve appearance and stability
Usually
 
Very Good
Avoid scratching, ultrasonic cleaners, harsh household chemicals, prolonged exposure to direct sunlight and excessive heat
 
I
 
Chrysocolla - Parrot Wing
2.0-4.0
 
Iimpregenation
to improve appearance and stability
Usually
 
Very Good
Avoid scratching, ultrasonic cleaners, harsh household chemicals, prolonged exposure to direct sunlight and excessive heat
 
I
 
Chrysotile
5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
normal care
 
n/a
 
Chrysoprase  - Australian
6 - 7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Citrine - Brazilian
7
 
irradiated
to create color
unknown
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
IR
 
Citrine - Brazilian 
7
 
heated
to alter color
usually
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Citrine - Madeira
7
 
heated
to alter color
usually
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Citrine - Santa Anna Madeira  
7
 
heated
to alter color
usually
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Citrine - Santa Anna Madeira  
7
 
irradiated
to create color
unknown
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
IR
 
Coral - Angel Skin Mediterranean 
3 - 4
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid scratching, temperature changes, steaming, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
 
 
Coral - Mediterranean Natural 
3 - 4
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid scratching, temperature changes, steaming, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Coral - Sponge 
3.5
 
Dyeing; Impregnation
To create color; To increase durability
Rarely
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
D, I
Gemstone D
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Danburite -Rose
7
 
Coating
To create color
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
C
 
Diamond 
10
 
Natural
NA
NA
 
good
Normal Care
 
NA
 
Diamond - Champagne
10
 
N/A
N/A
N/A
 
N/A
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Diamond - Canary Yellow 
10
 
Natural
NA
NA
 
good
Normal Care
 
NA
 
Diamond - Red 
10
 
Irradiation; High pressure heat treatment
To create color; To improve color
Always; Occasionally
 
Very Good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
IR; HPHT
 
Diamond - Black  
10
 
irradiated / heated
to create color and improve clarity
commonly
 
fair to good
Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners
 
IR H
 
Diamond - Blue  
10
 
irradiated
to create color
occasionally
 
excellent to very good
Normal Care
 
IR
 
Diamond - Blue  
10
 
Irradiation, high pressure high temperature
to create color
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
IR, HPHT
 
Diamond - Yellow  
10
 
irradiated
to create color
occasionally
 
excellent to very good
Normal Care
 
IR
 
Diamond - Green  
10
 
irradiated
to create color
occasionally
 
excellent to very good
Normal Care
 
IR
 
Diamond - Pink 
10
 
None
N/A
N/A
 
N/A
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
N/A
 
Diamond - Purple  
10
 
irradiated
to create color
occasionally
 
excellent to very good
Normal Care
 
IR
 
Diopside - Indian Black Star  
5 - 6
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Diopside is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid sudden temperature changes and harsh chemicals.
 
n/a
 
Diopside - Russian  
5 - 6
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Diopside is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid sudden temperature changes and harsh chemicals.
 
n/a
 
Dino Bone
6.5 to 7
 
Stabilized
Improve Durability
Always
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
S
Gemstone E
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerald
7.5-8
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care and Handling
 
n/a
 
Emerald - Boyaca Colombian 
7.5-8
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care and Handling
 
n/a
 
Emerald - Boyaca Colombian
7.5-8
 
oiled/resin infused
to improve clarity
Rarely
 
Fair
Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners
 
0
 
Emerald - Boyaca Colombian
7.5 - 8
 
Filled
Improve Appearance and Clarity
Commonly
 
Variable
Normal Care and Handling
 
F
 
Emerald - Boyaca Columbian
7.5-8
 
Dyed
Improve Color
rarely
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
D
 
Emerald - Kagem Zambian
7.5 - 8
 
Filled
Improve Appearance and Clarity
Commonly
 
Variable
Normal Care and Handling
 
F
 
Emerald - Kagem Zambian 
7.5 - 8
 
Oiled/Resin Infused
Improve Appearance and Stability
Always
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
O
 
Emerald - Premium
7.5 - 8
 
Filled
Improve Appearance and Clarity
Commonly
 
Variable
Normal Care and Handling
 
F
 
Eudialyte - Russian  
5 - 5.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
Gemstone F
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Feldspar - Black  
6.5
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
IR
 
Fluorite - Belgian Teal 
4
 
Irradiated
to create color
usually
 
fair to good
Avoid scratching, temperature changes, steaming, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
IR
 
Fluorite - Canary Yellow 
4
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid sudden temperature changes, steaming, chemicals and ultrasonic
 
n/a
 
Fluorite - Chinese Blue  
4
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid sudden temperature changes, steaming, chemicals and ultrasonic
 
n/a
 
Fluorite - Color Changing
4
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid sudden temperature changes, steaming, chemicals and ultrasonic
 
n/a
 
Fluorite - Mint Green  
4
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid sudden temperature changes, steaming, chemicals and ultrasonic
 
n/a
Gemstone G
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Garnet - Ambanja Demantoid
6.5 - 7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Garnet - Anthill
6.5 - 7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Garnet - Brazilian Mint (also known as Merelani Mint)
7 - 7.5
 
None
N/A
N/A
 
N/A
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Garnet  - Bekily Color Change 
7 - 7.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Garnet - Merelani Color Change 
7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Garnet - Brazil Red
7 - 7.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Garnet - Karo Tsavorite  
7 - 7.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care, Avoid sudden temperature changes.
 
n/a
 
Garnet - Orissa Rhodolite
(Also known as Orissa Rose Garnet)
7 - 7.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Garnet - Malaya
7 - 7.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
 
 
Garnet - Mozambique
7 - 7.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Garnet - Musi River Garnet
7 - 7.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
 
 
Garnet - Pyrope
7 - 7.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
 
 
Garnet - Ratnapura Hessonite  
7 - 7.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Garnet - Red
good to know
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Garnet - Spessartite  
7 - 7.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal care
 
n/a
 
Garnet - Mahenge Umbalite
7 – 8
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
 
 
Garnet - Viceroy Spessartite  
7 - 7.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal care
 
n/a
 
Goshenite - Brazilian
7.5 to 8
 
None
N/A
N/A
 
N/A
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
Gemstone H
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Helenite
5
 
Artificial glass made from Ash of Mt Helens
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Helenite - Champagne
5
 
Artificial glass made from Ash of Mt Helens
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Helenite - Purple
5
 
Artificial glass made from Ash of Mt Helens
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Heliodor
7.5 to 8.0
 
Heating
To improve color
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
H
 
Howlite
3.5
 
Dyeing
To create color
Commonly
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
D
Gemstone I
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Indicolite - Monte Belo  
7 - 7.5
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
NormaNormal Care and Handling l Care
 
n/a
 
Indicolite - Monte Belo  
7-7.5
 
heated
to improve color
rarely
 
excellent
normal care
 
H
 
Iolite - Catalina  
7 - 7.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care and handling.
 
n/a
Gemstone J
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jade - Burmese
6.5 - 7
 
Bleaching, Dyeing, Impregnation
Improve color, create color, increase durability
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
B, D, I
 
Jade - Chinese
6.5 - 7
 
Waxing, Dyeing
Improve color
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
W, D
 
Jasper
6.5 -7
 
resin coated
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
n/a
 
 
 
Jasper - Australian Pibara
6.5 -7
 
resin coated
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
n/a
 
 
 
Jasper - Blood
6.5 -7
 
resin coated
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
n/a
 
 
 
Jasper - Bumble Bee 
6.5 - 7
 
resin coated
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
 
Jasper - Dalmatian 
6.5 - 7
 
resin coated
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
 
Jasper - Indian Script Stone
6.5 - 7
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
Good
Avoid sudden temperature changes, steaming, chemicals and ultrasonic
 
n/a
 
Jasper - Mayan Porcelain 
7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Jasper - Mexican Porcelain
7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
 
 
Jasper - Peanut Wood 
7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Jasper - Picture
6.5 -7
 
resin coated
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
n/a
 
 
 
Jasper - Porcelain
7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
 
 
Jasper - Rainforest  
7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Jasper - Utah Rhyolite
6.5 - 7
 
resin coated
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
n/a
 
 
 
Jasper - Venus
6.5 -7
 
resin coated
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
n/a
 
 
Gemstone K
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kyanite - Green  
4 - 7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid rough handling, temperature changes, chemicals, steaming, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Kyanite - Himalayan  
4 - 7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid rough handling, temperature changes, chemicals, steaming, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Kyanite - Orange 
6.0 - 7.0
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Kyanite - Teal  
4 - 7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid rough handling, temperature changes, chemicals, steaming, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Kunzite
6.5 to 7.0
 
Heated
To improve color and remove brownish tones
commonly
 
good
Avoid prolonged exposure to strong light and harsh usage
 
H
 
Kunzite - Xia
6.5 to 7
 
None
N/A
N/A
 
N/A
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
Gemstone L
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Labradorite - Malagasy  
6 - 6.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Labradorite - Finland Spectrolite  
6 - 6.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Lapis Lazuli - Afghan
5.0-5.5
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal, gentle handling. Avoid exposure to acids, heat and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Larimar
4.5 - 5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Larimar - Nautral Green
4.5 - 5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Lepidolite
2.5 - 3
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid exposure to high temperature and harsh household chemicals.
 
 
Gemstone M
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Magnesite
3.5 to 4.5
 
dying; impregnation
to improve color; to improve durability
Always
 
Very Good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
D; I
 
Malachite - African
3.5 - 4
 
coated with colorless wax
to improve appearance
occasionally
 
fair
Malachite is soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
C, W
 
Malachite - African
3.5 - 4
 
dyed
to improve color uniformity
occasionally
 
good
Avoid chemicals, steam, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
D
 
Malachite - African
3.5 - 4
 
impregnated with plastic or other hardened agents
to improve appearance and durability
rarely
 
good
Malachite is soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
I
 
Marcasite - Swiss  
6 - 6.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Marialite  
5.5- 6
 
Can be Irradiated
Improve Color
Occasionally
 
Very Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
n/a
 
Marvelous Meteorites 
3-4
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Marvelous Meteorites 
3-4
 
Coated
To protect and prevent oxidation
commonly
 
good
Avoid acids and chemicals
 
C
 
Moldavite - Bohemian
5.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Mookaite - Kennedy Range  
6 - 7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Moonstones - Rainbow 
6 -6.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Moonstones - Sri Lankan Metallic 
6 -6.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Moonstones - Sri Lankan Orange 
6 -6.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Moonstones - Sri Lankan Pink 
6 -6.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Moonstones - Sri Lankan Rainbow  
6 - 6.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Morganite - Marropino
7.5 - 8
 
irradiated
to produce color
commonly
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
IR
 
Morganite - Marropino  
7.5 - 8
 
heated
to improve color
commonly
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
H
Gemstone N - O
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nuummite - Greenland
5.5 to 6.0
 
n/a
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Care and Handling: Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Obsidian - Coffee
5.0 - 5.5
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid harsh chemicals and ultrasonic
 
n/a
 
Opal - created Black, Blue, Orange
5.5 - 6.5
 
Impregnated with Resin
to improve color
usually
 
Good
Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic cleaners, and repolishing.
 
I
 
Opal - Australian Boulder
5.5 - 6.5
 
n/a
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic cleaners, and repolishing.
 
n/a
 
Opal - Australian Triplet
5.5 - 6.5
 
Assembled
to add color
usually
 
very good 
Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic cleaners, and repolishing.
 
A
 
Opal - Australian Pink
7.0
 
n/a
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners..
 
n/a
 
Opal - Canary
6 - 6.5
 
N/A
N/A
N/A
 
N/A
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
N/A
 
Opal - Caramel
6 - 6.5
 
Impreganation
To increase durability
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
I
 
Opal - Ethiopian Welo 
5.5- 6
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid steaming, ultrasonic cleaners, harsh chemicals and abrupt temperature changes.
 
n/a
 
Opal - Ethiopian Welo 
5.5- 6
 
impregnated
to improve appearance
occasionally
 
good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
I
 
Opal - Jalisco Fire 
5.0 - 6.5
 
None
N/a
N/a
 
N/a
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
n/a
 
Opal - Lab Created Black Ridge 
4.0
 
Impregnation 
To increase durability
Always
 
Very stable
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
I
 
Opal - Mosaic 
5
 
Assembled 
to improve appearance
commonly
 
good
Avoid rough handling, contact with water, harsh cleaners and extreme temperatures.
 
I
 
Opal - Natural Australian
5.0 - 6.5
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care, Note: this rough is dyed
 
n/a
 
Opal - Oregon Blue 
5.5 - 6
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
Note: this rough is dyed
 
D
 
Opal - Oregon Peach
5.5 - 6.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Opal - Peruvian Mint Green 
5.5 - 6
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Opal - Peruvian Pink
5.5 - 6
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Opal - Sable Ethiopian 
5 - 7
 
Dyed ,impregnated, waxed/oiled
Improve Appearance and Stability
Occasionally
 
Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
D,I, W
 
Opal - Sierra Madre Purple
5.0 - 6.5
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Opal - Salamanca Fire
5.5 to 6
 
None
N/A
N/A
 
N/A
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Opal - Crimson Fire
5.5 to 6.5
 
None
N/A
N/A
 
N/A
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
N/A
 
Orthoclase 
6 - 6.5
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Orthoceras 
3.5 - 4.5
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
Gemstone P
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pearl - Akoya 
2.5 - 4
 
Bleaching; dyeing
To remove color; to create color
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
B, D
 
Pearl - Edison 
2.5 - 4
 
Bleaching; dyeing
To remove color; to create color
Always
 
Very Stable
Do not use harsh chemicals, steam or ultrasonic cleaners. Pearls should be stored wrapped in a soft cloth. If they require cleaning, soak in warm water with a mild soap, then wrap in a soft cloth to dry. They should be the last item to put on when dressing and the first to take off.
 
B, D
 
Pearl - Tahitian 
2.5 - 4
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Do not use harsh chemicals, steam or ultrasonic cleaners. Pearls should be stored wrapped in a soft cloth. If they require cleaning, soak in warm water with a mild soap, than wrap in a soft cloth to dry. They should be the last item to put on when dressing and the first to take off.
 
n/a
 
Pearl - South Sea 
2.5 to 4
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Do not use harsh chemicals, steam or ultrasonic cleaners. Pearls should be stored wrapped in a soft cloth. If they require cleaning, soak in warm water with a mild soap, than wrap in a soft cloth to dry. They should be the last item to put on when dressing and the first to take off.
 
n/a
 
Petalite
6 to 6.5
 
None
N/A
N/A
 
N/A
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Peridot - Hebei  
6.5 - 7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Peridot - Hebei  
6.5 - 7
 
impregnated, oiled/waxed
to approve appearance
rarely
 
fair to good
Avoid sudden temperature changes, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
I, W
 
Peridot - Hebei  
6.5 - 7
 
filled
to improve clarity
rarely
 
good
Avoid sudden temperature changes, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
FF
 
Peridot - Arizona
6.5 to 7
 
None
N/A
N/A
 
N/A
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Pinolith - Austrian
3.5 to 4
 
None
N/A
N/A
 
N/A
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Pietersite - Golden 
6.5 - 7
 
Bleached
Improve Color
Commonly
 
Very Good
Normal Care
 
B
 
Pietersite - Hunan  
7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Prasiolite - Montezuma  
7
 
heated
to create color
commonly
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
H
Gemstone Q
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Quartz - African Lilac
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
always
 
good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Amazon
(Also known as Smoketrine)
7
 
Heating
To enhance color
always
 
Very Good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
H
 
Quartz - Aurelia Rutilated
7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Quartz - Arizona Sunset
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Alexandria
7
 
Triplet (two natural colorless quartz are joined together with a colored epoxy)
to add color
always
 
very good  
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Quartz - Alexandria
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Aqua Terra Costa
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Blazing Red
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Bohemian Pink
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Brazilian Smokey
7
 
irradiated
to create color
usually
 
good
Normal Care
 
IR
 
Quartz - Brazilian Watermelon
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Blue
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Blue Sapphire
7
 
Triplet (two natural colorless quartz are joined together with a colored epoxy)
to add color
n/a
 
very good 
Normal Care
 
A
 
Quartz - Black Ridge
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Bi-Color Imperial
7
 
Triplet (two natural colorless quartz are joined together with a colored epoxy)
to add color
n/a
 
very good 
Normal Care
 
A
 
Quartz - Capri Blue
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Cherry
7
 
None
N/A
N/A
 
N/A
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
N/A
 
Quartz - Caribbean
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Celestrial Blue
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Ceylon 
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Champagne
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Chartreuse
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Chrome
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Cobalt 
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Copper Bloom
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Crackled Green, Blue, Paraiba, Black, Pink, Purple, Orange
7
 
Heated, Dyed
Creates crackling and color
Commonly
 
Very Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
H, D
 
Quartz - Drusy  
7
 
Dyed
Improve Color
Commonly
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
D
 
Quartz - Drusy  
7
 
Coated
Improve Color
Commonly
 
Very Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
C
 
Quartz - Drusy  
7
 
heated
to improve color
occasionally
 
excellent
Normal care
 
HE
 
Quartz - Emerald  (Green Aventurine)
7
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal care
 
n/a
 
Quartz - Galilea Rose  
7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Quartz - Golden Rutilated
7
 
Assemble - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
n/a
 
Quartz - Herkimer Diamond  
6.5 - 7
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Quartz - Kunzite
7
 
Triplet (two natural colorless quartz are joined together with a colored epoxy)
to add color
n/a
 
very good 
Normal Care
 
A
 
Quartz - Indicolita
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Larimar
4.5 - 5
 
Assembled - Doublet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Lavender Alexite
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Lemon
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Moscato Pink
(Also known as Patroke Quartz)
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
To create color
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
A
 
Quartz - Madeira
7
 
can be Heated
Improve Stability and Color
always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
H
 
Quartz - Marsala Triplet
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Midnight Fuchsia
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Morganique
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Morganite
7
 
Triplet (two natural colorless quartz are joined together with a colored epoxy)
to add color
n/a
 
very good 
Normal Care
 
A
 
Quartz - Mystic Chrome
7-7.5
 
Coated
To create color
frequently
 
very good
Gentle care. Avoid abrasions. Chipping may reveal natural color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished. Avoid heat, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
C
 
Quartz - Mystic Fire
7-7.5
 
Coated
To create color
frequently
 
very good
Gentle care. Avoid abrasions. Chipping may reveal natural color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished. Avoid heat, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
C
 
Quartz - Neon Apatite
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
n/a
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Opulant
7-7.5
 
Coated
To create color
frequently
 
very good
Gentle care. Avoid abrasions. Chipping may reveal natural color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished. Avoid heat, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
C
 
Quartz - Ouro Verde
7
 
irradiated; heated
to induce color; to improve color
always
 
very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
IR; H
 
Quartz - Padparasha
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Papaya
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Paraiba
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Peacock
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Peridot
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Playa
(Also known as La Chiva Quartz) 
7
 
Triplet
to create color
always
 
very good 
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
A
 
Quartz - Radiant Orchid 
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Rainbow Genesis  
7
 
Coated
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
C
 
Quartz - Royal Blue
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Rubellite
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Ruby
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Scarlet Red
7-7.5
 
Coated
To create color
frequently
 
very good
Gentle care. Avoid abrasions. Chipping may reveal natural color. Cannot be re-cut or re- polished. Avoid heat, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
C
 
Quartz - Smoketrine
7
 
None
n/a
Rarely
 
Very Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color.
 
n/a
 
Quartz - Sunfire 
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
n/a
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Swiss Blue
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
n/a
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Salmon
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
Improve Stability and Color
Always
 
Fair - Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
ASBL
 
Quartz - Sphaleros
7
 
Assembled - Triplet
To create color
Always
 
Very Good
Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
A
 
Quartzite
6.5- 7.0
 
Dyed
to improve durability and appearance
commonly
 
good 
Avoid abrasives, ultrasonic, solvents and heat.
 
D
Gemstone R
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rhodochrosite - Argentinian 
3.5 - 4
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Rhodochrosite is soft, so be mindful of scratching and chipping.
 
n/a
 
Rhodonite - Zaire 
5.5 - 6
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal, gentle handling
 
n/a
 
Rubellite - Ouro Fino 
7 - 7.5
 
heated
to improve color
commonly
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Rubellite - Ouro Fino 
7 - 7.5
 
irradiated
to create color
occasionally
 
good
Normal Care
 
IR
 
Rubellite - Ouro Fino 
7 - 7.5
 
oiled/resin infused
to improve appearance
occasionally
 
fair to good
Avoid temperature changes, steaming, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
O
 
Rubellite - Ouro Fino 
7 - 7.5
 
dyed/stained
to alter color
rarely
 
poor to fair
Avoid temperature changes, steaming, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
D
 
Ruby
9
 
heated
to improve color
usually
 
good to excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Ruby - John Saul  
9
 
heated
to improve color
usually
 
good to excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Ruby - Kenyan Star 
9
 
fissure filled/Diffused
to improve durability and appearance and Phenomena
commonly
 
fair to good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam cleaners, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
FF
 
Ruby - Kenyan Star 
9
 
heated
to improve color
commonly
 
good to excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Ruby - Niassa  
9
 
fissure filled
to improve durability and appearance
commonly
 
fair to good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam cleaners, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
FF
 
Ruby - Burmese
9
 
Heating; Fissure Filled
To create color; Increase durability
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
H, FF
 
Ruby - Burmese
7.9
 
Heating; Flux Assisted Partial Fissure Healing
To improve color, increase durability
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
H, FAPFH
 
Ruby Zoisite
6.5 to 7
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
Gemstone S
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sapphire - Ceylon Blue
(Also known as Royal Ceylon Sapphire.)
9
 
Heating, Diffusion
To create color
Usually, Rarely
 
very good 
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
H, DF
 
Sapphire - Chocolate
9
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Sapphire - Golden
9
 
heated
to add color
commonly
 
very good 
Avoid repolishing/recutting.
 
H
 
Sapphire - Kanchanaburi Blue 
9
 
heated
to improve color
usually
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Sapphire - Kanchanaburi Blue 
9
 
surface diffused
to add color
occasionally
 
good
Avoid repolishing/re-cutting.
 
DF
 
Sapphire - Kanchanaburi Blue 
9
 
diffused
to improve color
occasionally
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
DF
 
Sapphire - Kanchanaburi Blue 
9
 
Fissure Filled
Improve Clarity
Rarely
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
FF
 
Sapphire - Kanchanaburi Blue 
9
 
irradiated
to create color
occasionally
 
very poor
Fades quickly in light or heat.
 
IR
 
Sapphire - Mauve
9
 
Heating
Improve Color
Always
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
H
 
Sapphire - Masoala
9
 
Dyed/Fissure Filled
Improve Color
Always
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
D, FF
 
Sapphire - Madagascar 
9
 
Diffused
To create color
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
D
 
Sapphire - Madagascar Purple 
9
 
Diffused, Heated
Improve Color and Durability
Always
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
DF, H
 
Sapphire - Montana 
9
 
Heating
To create color
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
H
 
Sapphire - Niassa Pink 
9
 
fissure filled, heated
to improve durability and appearance, to enhance color
commonly
 
fair to good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam cleaners, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
FF H
 
Sapphire - Purple 
9
 
Diffused, Heated
Improve Color and Durability
Always
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
DF, H
 
Sapphire - Sunset
9
 
Diffused, Heated
Improve Color and Durability
Always
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
DF, H
 
Sapphire - Silver 
9
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Sapphire - Thai Blue Star 
9
 
Star Diffused
Improve Color
Rarely
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-polished or re-cut.
 
DF
 
Sapphire - Yellow
9
 
Heated
to add color
always
 
very good  
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Scapolite - Cat's Eye  
5.5 - 6
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid chemicals, steam, ultrasonic cleaners and exposure to strong sunlight.
 
n/a
 
Scapolite - Mocha 
5.5 - 6
 
Irradiation
To create color
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
IR
 
Shungite 
3.5 to 4
 
n/a
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Scapolite - Mocha
5.5 - 6
 
Irradiated
Improve Color
Commonly
 
Fair - Good
Avoid chemicals, steam, ultrasonic cleaners and exposure to strong sunlight.
 
IR
 
Seraphinite - Siberian 
2.5 - 5.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid sudden temperature changes, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Seraphinite - Siberian 
2.5 - 5.5
 
impregnated, waxed/oiled
to improve hardness and luster
commonly
 
good to very good
Avoid ultrasonic chemicals and solvents.
 
I, W
 
Shadowkite - Table Mountain 
2.0-4.0
 
impregnated
to improve color and stability
Occasionally
 
Very Good
Avoid scratching, ultrasonic cleaners, harsh household chemicals, prolonged exposure to direct sunlight and excessive heat
 
I
 
Sillimanite - Green  
7 - 7.5
 
Dyed
Improve Color
Always
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
D
 
Sodalite 
5.5 - 6
 
Dyeing
To create color
Rarely
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
D
 
Sphene - Sava  
5 - 5.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Sphene requires no special care, though it is best suited for earrings and pendants due to its softness.
 
n/a
 
Sphene - Sava  
5 - 5.5
 
heated
to create red or orange color
rarely
 
fair to good
Sphene requires no special care, though it is best suited for earrings and pendants due to its softness.
 
H
 
Spinel - Blue
8
 
Diffusion
To create color
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
DF
 
Spinel - Burmese
8
 
Heating
To improve color
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
H
 
Spinel - Burmese Platinum
8
 
n/a
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Spinel - Burmese Red
8
 
Heating
To create color
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
H
 
Spinel - Burmese Lavender
8
 
n/a
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Spinel - Mahenge Red
8
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Spinel - Mahenge Purple 
8
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Spinel - Thai Black 
8
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Stichtite - Tasmanian  
1.5 – 2.0
 
stabilized 
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid sudden temperature changes, chemicals, rough handling, heat, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Strontium Titanate  
5 - 5.5
 
lab created 
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal, gentle handling Strontium Titanate is a soft stone, so be mindful of scratching.
 
n/a
 
Sunstone - Madras
6 - 6.5
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid sudden temperature changes, chemicals, rough handling, heat, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Sunstone - Masai  
6 - 6.5
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid sudden temperature changes, chemicals, rough handling, heat, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Sunstone - Sri Lankan 
6 - 6.5
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid sudden temperature changes, chemicals, rough handling, heat, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Sphene - Madagascar
5.5
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Sphalerite - Picos Altos
3.5 to 4
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Swarovski Crystal - All colors 
5.0-5.5
 
Coated
Improve Color
Commonly
 
Very Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
C
Gemstone T
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tanzanite
6.5 - 7
 
Heated
Improve Color
Always
 
Excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Tanzanite - Bondi Blue
6.5 - 7
 
Heated
Improve Color
Always
 
Excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Tanzanite - Natural Green  
6.5 - 7
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
n/a
 
Tanzanite - Natural Golden
6.5 - 7
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care and Handling
 
n/a
 
Tanzanite - Peacock
6.5 - 7
 
Heating
n/a
Rarely
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. Peacock Tanzanite may be heated as a side-effect of normal tanzanite production. Stones are not heated to enhance color.
 
H
 
Thulite Norwegian
6-6.5
 
Coated
Improve Color and Durability
Commonly
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
C
 
Tiger Iron
6.5 to 7
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Tiffany Stone - Utah 
6.0 - 7.0 
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Tigers Eye  - South African 
7
 
none
N/a
commonly
 
n/a
normal care
 
n/a
 
Tigers Eye  - South African 
7
 
heated
to alter color
rarely
 
good to very good
Avoid harsh chemicals, ultrasonic cleaners, and steaming.
 
H
 
Tigers Eye  - South African 
7
 
Dyed
to alter color
rarely
 
good to very good
Avoid harsh chemicals, ultrasonic cleaners, and steaming.
 
D
 
Topaz - Blazing Red
8
 
Coated
Improve Color
Occasionally
 
Very Good
Normal Care and Handling
 
C
 
Topaz - Coral Reef Mystic
8
 
Coated
To create color
Always
 
Very Good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
C
 
Topaz - Electric Blue 
8
 
Heated
Improve Color
Always
 
Very Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-polished or re-cut.
 
H
 
Topaz - Electric Blue 
8
 
Irradiated
Improve Color
Always
 
Very Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-polished or re-cut.
 
IR
 
Topaz - Freedom Blue Mystic 
8
 
Coating
To create color
Always
 
Very Good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
C
 
Topaz - Marambaia
8
 
Heated/Irradiated
to add color
always
 
very good  
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Topaz - Mystic Twilight
8
 
Coated
to create color
always
 
very good  
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
C
 
Topaz - Northern Lights Ecstasy
8
 
Coated
to create color
always
 
very good  
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
C
 
Topaz - Electric Blue 
8
 
irradiation followed by heat (annealing)
to produce to blue color
usually
 
excellent
Avoid steaming, ultrasonic cleaners, and abrupt temperature changes.
 
IR, H
 
Topaz - Electric Blue 
8
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care
 
n/a
 
Topaz - London Blue 
8
 
heated
to produce to blue color
usually
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
H
 
Topaz - London Blue 
8
 
irradiated
to produce to blue color
usually
 
excellent
Normal Care
 
IR
 
Topaz - London Blue 
8
 
irradiation followed by heat (annealing)
to produce to blue color
usually
 
excellent
Avoid steaming, ultrasonic cleaners, and abrupt temperature changes.
 
IR, H
 
Topaz - Mercury Mystic
8
 
Coated
Improve Color
Commonly
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
C
 
Topaz - Northern Lights Mystic 
8
 
Coated
Improve Color
Commonly
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
C
 
Topaz - Ouro Preto Diamond- Cut 
8
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Normal Care and Handling
 
n/a
 
Topaz - Prism Blue
8
 
Coated
Improve Color
Commonly
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
C
 
Topaz - Paraiba
8.0
 
Coated
To create color
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
C
 
Topaz - Signity
8
 
Coated
to add color
Always
 
very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
C
 
Tourmaline - Mozambique Paraiba  
7 - 7.5
 
Heated
Improved Color
rarely
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
H
 
Tourmaline - Australian Black
7 to 7.5
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
H
 
Tourmaline - Pink
(Also known as Morro Redondo Pink Tourmaline)
7 to 7.5
 
Heated
Improved Color
Rarely
 
Fair
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
H
 
Turkizite  
6.5 - 7.0
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Turquoise - Anahi
5-6
 
Dyed
to enhance color
commonly
 
good
Avoid hot water, harsh household chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
D
 
Turquoise - Kingman  
5 - 6
 
Stabalized, Zachary Process
Improve Durability
Always
 
Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
S,Z
 
Turquoise - Mojave  
5 - 6
 
impregnated
to improve appearance
commonly
 
Good
Avoid  hot water, household chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
I
 
Turquoise - Mojave  
5 - 6
 
Waxed/Oiled
Improve durability and Appearance
Always
 
Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
W
 
Turquoise - Mojave  
5 - 6
 
Dyed
Improve Color
Rarely
 
Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
D
 
Turquoise - Mojave  
5 - 6
 
Composite
Improve durability
Always
 
Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.
 
CMP
 
Turquoise - Royston 
5 - 6
 
Stabilization
To increase durability
Always
 
Very good
Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
 
S
 
Turquoise - Sleeping Beauty  
5 - 6
 
Zachary process
to improve durability and appearance
commonly
 
very good
Avoid hot water, harsh household chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
Z
 
Turquoise - Sonoran Blue
5 - 6
 
Zachary process
to improve durability and appearance
commonly
 
very good
Avoid hot water, harsh household chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
Z
Gemstone U - V
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Variscite - Utah  
3.5-4.5
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Color may fade in strong light.
 
n/a
 
Vesuvianite  
6.5
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid Scratching
 
n/a
 
Vivianite - Australian
1.5 - 2.0
 
none
n/a
n/a
 
good
Vivianite needs to be cared for by keeping it indoors and not exposing it to sunlight for too long as the UV rays will darken it, and if left out it will go completely black. 
 
n/a
Gemstone W - Z
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zircon - Cambodian Blue
6.5 - 7
 
Heated
To enhance color
usually
 
good
Avoid harsh abrasives 
 
H
 
Zircon - Umba River
6.5 - 7
 
Heated
Improve Color
Commonly
 
Very Good
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes
 
H
 
Zircon - White
6.5 - 7
 
None
n/a
n/a
 
n/a
Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners.
 
n/a
 
Zirconia - Swarovski - All colors
8
 
Coated
Improve Color
Always
 
Very Good
Avoid Sudden Temperature changes, chemcials, and ultrasonic
 
C